Arnold Beckmann and Jan Johannsen
Math. Log. Quart. 2005, 51: 191-200
Publication year: 2005

The theories S^i_1(α) and T^i_1(α) are the analogues of Buss’ relativized bounded arithmetic theories in the language where every term is bounded by a polynomial, and thus all definable functions grow linearly in length. For every i , a Σ^b_i+1(α) – formula TOP^i(α), which expresses a form of the total ordering principle, is exhibited that is provable in S^i+1_1(α) , but unprovable in T^i_1(α). This is in contrast with the classical situation, where S^i+1_2 is conservative over T^i_2 w.r.t. Σ^b_i+1-sentences. The independence results are proved by translations into propositional logic, and using lower bounds for corresponding propositional proof systems.